WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT PORT ORCHARD—There are a few widespread patterns for organizing the business logic of a layered system. They are as follows: The Transaction Script, Table Module, and Domain Model patterns.
Transaction Script pattern.
According to the Website Development Port Orchard, the Transaction Script pattern is probably the possible pattern to use for business logic, and it’s entirely procedural. The word “Script” in the name indicates that you intend to logically associate a sequence of system-carried actions (namely, a script) with each user action. On the other hand, the word “Transaction” has little to do here with database transactions. Instead, it more generically indicates a business transaction you carry out from start to finish within the boundaries of the same call.
Naturally, the pattern has some potential for code duplication. However, this aspect can be easily mitigated with coding discipline by addressing common subtasks and implementing them through reusable routines.
In terms of architectural design, the Transaction Script pattern leads to a design in which actionable user-interface elements in the presentation layer invoke the application layer’s endpoints, and these endpoints trigger a transaction for each task.
Table Module pattern
The Table Module pattern, according to Website Development Port orchard, heralds a more database-centric way of organizing the business logic. The main idea is that the logic of a system is closely related to the model used for persistence. So the Table Module pattern suggests you have one business component for each primary database table. Such a component exposes endpoints through which the application layer can execute commands and queries against a given table.
About architectural design, the Table Module pattern leads to a technique in which the presentation layer calls into the application layer. The application layer for each step of the workflow identifies the tables involved, finds the appropriate table-module component, and works with that.
Domain Model pattern
The Domain Model pattern, according to Website Development Port Orchard, suggests that, far before you care about persistence, you focus on the expected behavior of the system, and the data flows that make it work systematically. When implementing the pattern, you essentially create an object model. However, the Domain Model pattern doesn’t simply tell you to code many C# or Java classes. The whole point of the Domain Model pattern is to get to an object-oriented model that fully represents the behavior and the processes of some business domain.
When implementing the pattern, you have classes that represent entities in the domain. The public interface of these classes refers to the expected behavior. Subsequently, business rules are incorporated into the body of the classes, and the interface reflects ad hoc data types and actions.
The firm believes that exists within the Website Development Port Orchard and beyond because the classes in the domain model must always be agnostic concerning persistence. For the content to be persisted, you pair the domain model with additional service classes containing just the logic to materialize instances of domain classes to and from the persistence layer. A graphical schema of a Domain Model pattern has two elements: a model of aggregated objects and domain services to carry out specific workflows that span multiple objects or deal directly with persistence.
Using a single model
The result of the DDD strategic analysis has the information for building a software model for the given business domain. The design approach you use for creating such a domain-driven software model is referred to as a supporting architecture.
The first example of a supporting architecture was presented a decade ago in Eric Evans’s seminal book Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software (Addison-Wesley, 2003). That supporting architecture was a single, object-oriented model designed to cover all aspects and uses of the domain. Such a single, all-encompassing model was referred to as the domain model, and it’s consistent with the Domain Model pattern for organizing the business logic that we mentioned a moment ago.
Other supporting architectures emerged later to solve the problems people experienced while adapting DDD to an increasingly broader range of issues and business domains.
Exploring the elements of an object-oriented domain model.
An object-oriented domain model is a software model for a business domain that reflects all the intricacies of fundamental business processes, including tasks performed by personas, roles, and naming conventions. To serve this purpose effectively, the object-oriented model needs to fulfill a few strict requirements.
From the compiler perspective, a domain model is just made of classes, and a class is a collection of properties and methods. From the developer perspective, classes are of two main types: entities and value types. Both types of classes work together to express business logic, and persistence is not one of their concerns.
An entity is a class that stands for a natural element of the business domain—anything like an invoice, a trade, a wire transfer, or a sports match. The class has public and internal properties and possibly a few methods. Properties are a way to store and expose the current state of the entity. Methods are the general tools available to upgrade the state entirely.
Among the properties of an entity, there’s something that gives the collection of data a unique attribute—identity. The identity is a combination of values that uniquely describe the information the entity encapsulates. Overall, it’s the same concept you have with a primary key, which you might know from relational databases.
For example, how would you consider accounting for two money transactions that take place the same day and involve the exact amount and bank account? Is it the same operation just repeated? Or are the transactions rather distinct functions occurring independently? It’s probably the latter, but whether it is or not strictly depends on the domain.
Entities are typically made of data and behavior. However, when it comes to behavior, we should clarify that behavior refers to domain logic and business rules.
In DDD(Domain Driven Design), a value type is a type whose instances are entirely defined by the values stored in the public properties. However, be aware that the attributes of a value type never change after the instance has been created. If they change, the value object becomes an instance of another value object fully identified by the new collection of attributes.
DDD (Domain Driven Design)value objects are also referred to as immutable types. The Int32 and String types are the most popular immutable types in the Microsoft .NET Framework. Here’s a sample implementation of a typical value type:
Behavior is not relevant in value objects; value objects might still have methods, but those are essentially helper methods. Unlike entities, though, value objects don’t need identity because they have no variable state and are fully identified by their data.
Website Development Port Orchard believes that the role of value types is much more critical than many seem to think in the domain model. Value types are about using more accurate tools to model the real world. The score of a football match can be represented with two distinct integer properties, but in the end, it’s an ad hoc type whose instances are fully identified by two integers. Primitive types, generally, are too often an approximation of the real-world aspect they attempt to model. Some logic is required to validate their use.
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